There was some success with Truman's containment policy. Around 1946 the Soviets were forced to withdraw from Iran
which was a very tactical standpoint in the Middle East. Even more importantly, while trying to take over Greece, a civil
war erupted. The USSR also tried to pressure Turkey for the right to establish a naval base and territory on the Bosporus.
A waterway that provided access to both the Black and Agean Sea. In order to prevent communism from spreading to the Mediterranean,
President Truman requested that Congress for $400 million in economic aid for Greece and Turkey. This policy
became known as the Truman Doctrine. With help from America, both Greece and Turkey triumphed over the threats of
the communists. The U.S. was backing words with action!
Following 1945 the economic ruin that followed the war created an ideal atmosphere for Communistic advances in Western
Europe. There were already extreme left wing parties in both Italy and France that would help with the spread of Communism.
In order to combat this the Marshall Plan was introduced, which consisted of massive economic aid to all European countries.
The U.S. spent about $13 billion on restoring Europe, however, it strengthened the resistence against Communism and reestablished
many European countries as trading partners.
After WWII Germany was divided into two different areas: East Germany was Communistic and West Germany was Allied controlled,
which caused a very strong strain between America and the USSR. This became even more prevalent as America, Britian and France
combined their occupied zones into one and began to form it's government. This, of course, caused great fear among the Soviets,
so they blockaded West Berlin in 1948. The city was located in East Germany and had also been divided into either Communist
East Berlin or Free West Berlin. Being so surrounded by Communists, West Berlin was very vulnerable.
In order to counter this, Truman, responded with a massive food and supply airlift to West Berlin, which became known
as the Berlin Airlift and by 1949 the Soviets had been forced back and had to end the blockade. They later responded with
the formation of the Federal Republic of Germany, which created East Germany into a Communist state, the German Democratic
Republic. So until about 1990 Germany remained divided for over forty years.
The first true campaign began in Eastern Europe. In the twentieth century the Soviets had been invaded twice by Germany,
so in order to have a sense of security they sought to install a pro-Soviet goevernment in spite of their agreements at Yalta
of free democratic elections.
In the Spring of 1945 the Soviets established "puppet" governments in Romania and Poland. After that other countries
like East Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania, and Yugoslavia fell to Communistic control. Then in 1948 Czechoslovakia
was the final Eastern European country to fall to Soviet domination.
Winston Churchill described this series of events as an "iron curtain" seperating the Communist East from the Free West.
While President Truman responded to the Soviet invasion in Europe as with the poicly of conatinment, which basically
meant that he did not want to attempt to remove the vast Red Army, so instead he allowed the Soviets that area but any
further aggression would be met with resistance. "...Truman confronted the Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov about Poland.
'I have never been talked to like that in my life.,' Molotov said. 'Carry out your agreements and you won't get talked to
like that ,' Truman shot back."
Truman faced an immensely growing spread of communism, yet he was determined to pursue the contaiment policy
with military and economic support if need be.
In order to give a futher defense against Communism, the Middle East, Mediterranean, the Western nations formed an organization
called North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO, in 1949. NATO was designed as a mutual defense pact and was ratified by
an overwhelming number in Senate. Participation in NATO further identified how far the U.S. had come from isolationism. It
also hardened the feelings between the West and Eastern European countries and eventually led to the Warsaw Pact which was
designed to counter NATO.